This product was sold by Joseph Cristadoro of New York City. He was in business starting in 1833, but I'm not sure when he started selling this product. Ads from 1849 until 1854 called it "Excelsior Fluid." In 1906, a trademark was registered for Excelsior Hair Dye (see below). It was registered by Alexander Cristadoro (probably Joseph's son).
In 1893, the Era Formulary listed the following formulas for "Christadoro's Hair Dye:"
No. 1, To 1 ounce of pyro gallic acid, dissolved in 1 ounce alcohol, add 1 quart soft water. No. 2, To 1 ounce crystallized nitrate of silver, dissolved in 1 ounce concentrated aqua-ammonia and 1 ounce soft water, add 1/2 ounce gum arabic and 3 ounces soft water.
An ad in 1863 claimed that the Excelsior Hair Dye not only produced the best colors, but it also changed the texture of the hair.